Innovation in South Korea's shipbuilding industry: from "bringing doctrine" to everything is possible
South Korea, China's close neighbor. In 1973, marked by the completion and operation of modern Ulsan shipyard, South Korea's shipbuilding industry rose rapidly. After nearly 30 years of efforts, it finally surpassed Japan and became the world's largest shipbuilding country after entering the 21st century. Opening the growth history of Korean shipbuilding industry, innovation plays a decisive role. From the "taking doctrine" in the initial stage to the "nothing is impossible" in times of crisis, there are innovative footprints in every step
South Korea has a small territory, extremely poor resources, and energy is almost completely dependent on imports. South Korean people have enough awareness of this and a strong sense of hardship. They believe that the only resource of South Korea is human resources, the brain of the people, "we must create science and technology for Korean people to eat and survive tomorrow". In the 1960s and 1970s, South Korea also introduced a large number of foreign advanced technologies, but they were not simply introduced, but digested and absorbed in the introduction. Relevant information shows that for every dollar of technology they introduce, they have to spend $8 of matching funds to digest. Relying solely on the introduction of technology and being a world processing plant, it is impossible to become an economic power without competitiveness; To develop, we must have our own original core technology. This is the consensus from the president to ordinary citizens. To this end, South Korea has taken a series of effective measures from the aspects of legal policies, capital investment, talent training and so on
the "bringing doctrine" under the national scientific and technological innovation system
South Korea used to be a typical "bringing doctrine". The technological foundation of its enterprises was mainly formed through the centralized introduction of foreign technology and digestion and absorption. This kind of imitation innovation has the characteristics of less investment, less risk and quick effect. It makes the technological level of South Korea jump, surpassing the level of moderately developed countries and approaching the level of developed countries. However, this has also caused South Korea's heavy dependence on foreign technology when it is durable, resulting in its lack of stamina for economic development to a certain extent. For this reason, since the late 1980s, the focus of South Korea's "building the country through science and technology" has shifted to the formation of independent technological research and development capabilities. After years of development, South Korea has initially formed a national innovation system with enterprises as the main body of development, the state undertaking basic, pilot, public welfare research and strategic reserve technology development, the combination of industry, University and research, and sound legal protection
Korean shipbuilding industry is also the first to introduce design drawings from abroad and carry out production under the supervision of foreign classification societies and ship owners' technical representatives. Domestic enterprises explore and learn in production and gradually form their own independent research and development capabilities. South Korea has developed the shipbuilding industry by introducing complete sets of production equipment and importing core components for assembly and production. Make use of domestic cheap labor to produce export ships and participate in international competition. Korean shipbuilding technology is almost completely "pieced together" through the introduction of foreign technology. However, it laid the technical foundation of the company and the shipbuilding industry of South Korea in a relatively short time. With the geographical transfer of shipbuilding industry from developed countries in Europe and the United States to emerging Southeast Asian countries, the source of support for technology introduction has gradually shrunk. Japan has become South Korea's biggest competitor. But at that time, taking Hyundai Heavy Industry as an example, the continuity of production was poor, the operation of various processes was decentralized, and the overall control was weak. Therefore, measures must be taken to deliver goods in time, maintain a low cost level, and compete with the Japanese shipbuilding industry. Therefore, Hyundai Heavy Industry decided to develop its own basic design capacity and produce its own engines and core electromechanical equipment. At the same time, carry out industrial integration development. On the other hand, with the development of World Trade and transportation, a series of new ship types have emerged one after another. Modern shipbuilding technology is moving in the direction of high mechanization, automation, integration, modularization and computerization, which reduces the development of transportation costs and human costs. Korean shipbuilding enterprises continue to learn from the advanced experience of Japan and other countries, constantly improve their production processes and governance, and constantly research, develop and apply new production technologies
during the initial development period, Korean shipbuilding enterprises adopted the method of importing complete sets of production equipment and importing core components for assembly and production. Make use of domestic cheap labor to produce export ships and participate in international competition. These measures have led to the rapid expansion of shipbuilding capacity of Korean enterprises and the continuous increase of international market share. Korean shipbuilding enterprises vigorously introduce foreign technology and develop enterprises by combining the introduction of technology with their own labor cost advantages, which has played a considerable role in the development of their own economy and scale
while implementing the technology introduction strategy, Korean shipbuilding enterprises closely combine technology introduction with technological innovation. Especially after the 1990s, Korean shipbuilding enterprises have made great progress not only in order taking, but also in shipbuilding technology and quality. Korean shipbuilding enterprises are no longer satisfied with basic dry bulk carriers, oil tankers and other ship products, and begin to develop towards high-end ships. They gradually begin to introduce high-end ship manufacturing technologies such as VLCC, LPG and LNG with high technology content, high construction difficulty and high added value. At the same time of introducing advanced technology, Korean shipbuilding enterprises began to pay attention to adjusting the structure and standards of the introduced technology, adding aspects such as the development of new products and the improvement of product precision when introducing technology, and introducing the concept of technology development life cycle, trying to introduce technologies whose life cycle is still in the development stage or growth stage. Korean shipbuilding enterprises pay more attention to improving the use efficiency of imported technology, promote the digestion and absorption of technology, and strive to improve and innovate again on the basis of imported technology, so as to develop their own new technology
it can be said that under the guarantee of the national innovation system, the Korean government has always attached importance to supporting and expanding the scientific and technological competitiveness of the industry, from supporting the introduction of foreign technology to supporting the formation of technologies and products with independent intellectual property rights at a high starting point, especially cultivating and improving the shipbuilding scientific research system. The government not only plans and manages, but also makes long-term and unremitting capital investment to produce products that meet the shipping standards as soon as possible to meet the domestic shipbuilding needs. At the same time, the government and enterprises have made long-term investment in digesting and absorbing foreign technology and improving their independent development capacity, and the technological level has been continuously improved. Under the guarantee of a perfect scientific research system, technology introduction and independent innovation run through the whole process of industrial development
the first Wartsila rt-flex8
created by Hyundai Heavy Industries -- "nothing is impossible"
the achievements of South Korea's shipbuilding industry benefit from imagination and creativity after all screws are polished by copper wire mesh. Inspired by innovative ideas, the R & D personnel of Korean shipbuilding enterprises often change "impossible" to "possible"
lng ship is a high-end ship, which requires quite advanced technology. Its core technology is still in the growth stage, and there is a large space for technology development. Before the 1990s, the design, construction and operation of LNG ships were mainly in the hands of European and Japanese shipbuilding enterprises. After entering the 1990s, Korean shipbuilding enterprises began to introduce LNG ship related technology purposefully and systematically, digest and absorb this technology, and carry out independent innovation on the basis of the introduced technology. In 1994, Korean shipping enterprises built their first LNG ship, thus entering the international LNG ship market on a large scale. The technological innovation of Korean shipbuilding enterprises has developed rapidly, and they have built the world's largest LNG ship
in 2005, based on the introduction of LNG technology, Daewoo Heavy Industries of South Korea developed the world's first multi-functional natural gas carrier. This new concept LNG carrier is called LNG RV (rehabilitation vessel), which is the most technologically advanced LNG carrier in the world
when designing and developing lng-rv ships at first, "must the gas storage base be built on the ground?" The designers of Daewoo Heavy industry started from this problem, gave full play to the imagination of gb/t 3098.1 (2) 000 fasteners mechanical properties bolts, screws and studs, and finally developed the world's first new concept liquefied natural gas transport ship. The ship has installed a device to vaporize liquefied gas on the liquefied natural gas carrier, and provides gas to consumers directly through the gas transmission pipeline on the ship. It can float on the sea for several months to supply gas, and then pass the baton to other ships
after Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans in the United States, all gas supply facilities were paralyzed. Only this ship broke through the wind and waves, providing a "source of recovery" for the ruined city. The mayor of New Orleans wrote a thank-you letter to accelerator energy company, which operated the ship, and the ship owner's order to Daewoo shipbuilding also flew like snowflakes. Zhu Yingxie, director of Daewoo shipbuilding, said, "there are orders for more than four ships, each of which amounts to 280million US dollars (about 262billion Korean won), and the sales volume has exceeded 1 trillion, which is quite stable."
the technological innovation achieved in the manufacture of LNG RV (rehabilitation vessel) ships benefits from the innovative mode brought about by the technology introduction strategy, and the source of success is the imagination and creativity of designers who "everything is possible"
"can we build a ship without a dock?" Domestic enterprises began to build ships on water, in water, and even on land. The dock is a large pool for the final combination of ships. After the ship is built, open the dock door, put in the sea water, and prop up the ship. Dock construction method is a formula that no one dares to break in the shipbuilding industry. However, Korean shipbuilders were not satisfied with this, but gave full play to their imagination
Hyundai Heavy Industry Company was the first company in the world to use land construction technology, and successfully realized land shipbuilding. After the 20000 ton giant ship was built on land, the high-pressure air ejected from the 8-section track on the bottom pad lifted the ship for a few millimeters, and then pushed the ship out. In this way, the barge on the sea took over the new ship and towed it to the deep sea. After the barge touched the bottom, the ship was successfully launched. This operation requires very high precision, but Wu Bingyu, a professional in modern heavy industry, laughed and said, "isn't it the most primitive to build ships on land? The docks are full, and he came up with this bitter trick because he can't refuse the requirements of repeat customers to build ships."
Samsung Heavy Industries adopts the "floating dock technology" of shipbuilding on barges floating on the water. Barges floating on the sea act as docks. In order to build a ship on it in a short time, 6 ~ 8 huge blocks are manufactured on land in advance, and transported to the floating dock by a 3000 ton offshore crane for assembly. Quan Taixing, executive director of Samsung heavy industry, said, "it takes 150billion won to excavate the dock, and there is no spare space, so he came up with the idea. Korean shipyards can achieve an annual growth of 20% without adding docks, which is all due to this creative spirit."
in South Korea, the shipbuilding industry, once ridiculed as a chimney industry and a sunset industry, has been reborn with imagination
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